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Post-launch monitoring (PLM) survey of consumer purchase behaviour of foods with added plant sterols and stanols

R.T. Ras and E.A. Trautwein: Consumer purchase behaviour of foods with added phytosterols in six European countries: Data from a post-launch monitoring survey

Food and Chemical Toxicology (2017), doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2017.10.003


  • This most recent PLM survey confirms again that foods with added plant sterols and stanols were mainly purchased by the intended target population, i.e. 1-2 person households with a household head older than 35 years and without children under the age of 5 years.
  • Overall, plant sterol and stanol intakes are far below recommended intakes of 1.5-3.0 g/d leading to a LDL-cholesterol-lowering effect of 7 to 12.5% on average. Intakes exceeding the recommended plant sterol or stanol intakes are scarce, supporting that overconsumption is not really a concern.
  • Compared to PLM data from previous surveys, plant sterol and stanol intakes have declined overtime, despite an increased range of foods with added plant sterols and stanols that entered the market and the approval of health claims.


This recently published paper represents the latest post launch monitoring (PLM) survey on consumer purchase behaviour of foods with added plant sterols and stanols. It summaries findings from a 2015 PLM survey in six European countries, i.e. UK, Germany, France, Netherlands, Belgium and Greece, reporting purchase behaviour data for a period of one-year.

The aim of this survey was to assess by whom and to what extent foods with added plant sterols or stanols are being purchased. The survey included all food products, e.g. spreads, dairy foods (milk, yoghurt) and others on the market in 2015 in these countries.

Based on the number of purchases per year, the total amount of plant sterols and stanols purchased per household and the daily intake of plant sterols and stanols per household were calculated. Data from 80,825 households were included.

Penetration rates of households that purchased foods with added plant sterols or stanols ranged between 3% in Germany, 9% in France and the Netherlands, 12% in UK, 17% in Belgium and 34% in Greece. 34-61% of the households purchased infrequently (≤2 times/year), 29-36% occasionally (<monthly) and 11-33% regularly, i.e. at least once a month. Most PS (62-100%) were purchased in spread format.

The median plant sterol and stanol intakes for all purchasers ranged from 0.11 g/d in France and the Netherlands to 0.30 g/d in the UK.

Considering regular purchasers, median intakes ranged from 0.91 in the Netherlands to 1.44 g/d in Belgium. The 95th percentile of plant sterol and stanol intakes ranged from 2.41 to 3.39 g/d, exceeding 3 g/d only in 2.5% of households in the UK and Belgium.

The proportion of households that reported ‘optimal’ plant sterol and stanol intakes of 1.5-3.0 g/day ranged from 0% in Greece to 11.1% in the UK. Most households (i.e. ≥86%) had intakes below 1.5 g/d.


Do plant sterols and stanols reduce liver inflammation?

IPSSA member companies support Dutch researchers to obtain a research grant stimulating public-private partnerships


Foods and food supplements with added plant sterols and stanols are known for their LDL-cholesterol lowering effect (Gylling et al, 2014). Several meta-analyses have summarised the evidence showing that serum LDL-cholesterol concentrations can be lowered by 7-12.5% with intakes of 1.5 – 3 g/d of plant sterols/stanols (Ras et al, 2014).

Emerging research nowadays shows that plant sterols/stanols may also exert health benefits beyond cholesterol-lowering. Researchers from the University of Maastricht have recently found in preclinical studies using an accepted animal model that plant sterols and stanols reduced inflammation in the liver and the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (Plat et al, 2014).

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is caused by a build-up of fat in the liver and can progress into irreversible non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a condition where next to fat build-up also inflammation and damage to the liver occurs. Due to rise of obesity and diabetes the prevalence of NAFLD and NASH is worldwide increasing, making it a major health concern.

The Maastricht researchers hypothesize that plant sterols/stanols may also lower liver inflammation in humans who have already established hepatic inflammation or are at risk due to being obese, having diabetes or high blood cholesterol. A challenge is to develop proven intervention opportunities to reduce or prevent NASH and furthermore to identify individuals who are at risk of liver disease by using a validated tool of non-invasive biomarkers.

Therefore, the Maastricht researchers, supported by the three IPSSA member companies BASF, Raisio and Unilever, applied for a research grant from the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs via the “Top Sector Life Sciences & Health” to further study whether liver inflammation can be lowered by plant sterols and stanols in humans including patients with NASH.

The now granted research project aims to identify a tool of non-invasive biomarkers that could be ultimately used as a diagnostic tool in clinical practice. Further, the effects of plant sterols and stanols on liver inflammation will be investigated in placebo-controlled human intervention studies, of which the first study will start within the coming months.

This research project will deliver important insights into dietary ways to control liver disease and especially NASH development. IPSSA companies support this research as it may provide substantiated evidence for health benefits of plant sterols/stanols beyond cholesterol lowering and may hence offer opportunities for further promote health by addressing an emerging global health risk such as liver inflammation.

Visit also the press release available on the Maastricht University Medical Centre (MUMC) website:



Gylling H, Plat J, Turley S, Ginsberg HN, Ellegard L, Jessup W, et al. Plant sterols and plant stanols in the management of dyslipidaemia and prevention of cardiovascular disease. Atherosclerosis. 2014;232(2):346-60.

Ras RT, Geleijnse JM, Trautwein EA. LDL-cholesterol-lowering effect of plant sterols and stanols across different dose ranges: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled studies. Br J Nutr. 2014;112(2):214-9.

Plat J, Hendrikx T, Bieghs V, Jeurissen ML, Walenbergh SM, van Gorp PJ, De Smet E, Konings M, Vreugdenhil ACE, Guichot YD, Rensen SS, Buurman WA, Greve JW, Lütjohann D, Mensink RP, Shiri-Sverdlov R. Protective role of plant sterol and stanol esters in liver inflammation: insights from mice and humans. PLoS One 2014; 9 (10): e110758.


IPSSA endorses IDF survey “Taking Diabetes to Heart”

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IPSSA, the International Plant Sterols and Stanols Association, endorses the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) ongoing survey “Taking Diabetes to Heart”.

The IDF in collaboration with Novo Nordisk has launched “Taking Diabetes to Heart”, a multi-country online survey aiming to raise awareness and knowledge of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The results of this survey will support the development of tools, educational resources and policies designed to reduce the burden of CVD amongst people living with T2DM. The outcome of this survey will further help to define actions to further promote knowledge and awareness of CVD and to improve health outcomes of people living with T2DM.

You can take part in the survey at:

Worldwide, the prevalence of T2DM is steadily increasing due to ageing populations and unhealthy lifestyles. It is expected that by 2030, 1 in 10 adults will have T2DM (1). Diabetes itself is an independent risk factor for CVD and individuals with T2DM have on average a 2-fold increase in CVD risk compared to those without diabetes (2, 3).

Next to keeping hyperglycaemia (blood glucose) under control, also dyslipidaemia characterised by elevated blood triglycerides (TG), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations should be improved. Lowering LDL-C is the primary target of blood lipid lowering therapy in T2DM (3).

Diet and lifestyle management plays a key role and should be recommended to all people with or at risk of T2DM. Amongst dietary ways to control blood lipids, foods with added plant sterols or stanols have been shown to lower LDL-C concentrations in individuals with T2DM comparably as achieved in hypercholesterolaemic, but otherwise healthy people (4,5). A meta-analysis of randomised, placebo-controlled studies with people diagnosed with T2DM concluded that plant sterols and stanols at intakes of 1.6-3.0 g/d significantly lowered LDL-C concentrations by 0.31 mmol/L or about 10% (4).

Therefore, the LDL-C lowering benefit of foods and supplements with added plant sterols and stanols can be considered of clinical relevance and may help to further reduce the risk of CVD in T2DM as part of a healthy diet and lifestyle approach.

Several dietary guidelines tailored towards diabetes already refer or explicitly mention plant sterols/stanols as part of the diet and lifestyle intervention, such as the guidelines of the American Diabetes Association and of Diabetes UK (6,7).


  1. Shaw JE, Sicree RA, Zimmet PZ. Global estimates of the prevalence of diabetes for 2010 and 2030. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2010 Jan;87(1):4-14.
  2. Sattar N. Revisiting the links between glycaemia, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Diabetologia 2013 Apr;56(4):686-95.
  3. Catapano AL, Graham I, De Backer G, Wiklund O, Chapman MJ, Drexel H, et al. 2016 ESC/EAS Guidelines for the Management of Dyslipidaemias. Eur Heart J. 2016;37(39):2999-3058.
  4. Baker WL, Baker EL, Coleman CI. The effect of plant sterols or stanols on lipid parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2009;84(2):e33-7.
  5. Ras RT, Geleijnse JM, Trautwein EA. LDL-cholesterol-lowering effect of plant sterols and stanols across different dose ranges: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled studies. Br J Nutr. 2014;112(2):214-9.
  6. American Diabetes Association. Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2017.
  7. Diabetes UK. Evidence-based Nutrition Guidelines for the prevention and management of diabetes 2011.


The impact of structured advice from dietitians on dietary and lifestyle changes when compared with standard physician advice

  • Dietitian delivered structured advice increases adherence to recommended diet and lifestyle changes and lowers low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol.
  • Structured advice from a dietitian resulted in the consumption of more servings of foods with added plant sterols both during the study and afterwards when no longer provided.
  • This study demonstrates a beneficial effect on blood lipids of dietary advice including use of food with added plant sterols when individuals are followed up after the intervention has ended.

Although it is well known that a healthy diet and regular exercise are important for cardiovascular health, consumer adherence to lifestyle and dietary change is poor.  A parallel, randomised, placebo-controlled study, set in Athens, Greece, enrolled one hundred participants with hypercholesterolaemia and allocated 50 to a standard physician advice group and 50 to a dietitian group for a structured programme of behavioural change. Both groups were given food with added plant sterols (three servings a day).

At baseline, all individuals had EAS/ESC1 defined borderline to mildly elevated total cholesterol levels of 200-239 mg dL-1 (5.18-6.19 mmol L-1) and were not on any cholesterol-lowering medication nor consuming plant sterols or stanols.

The intervention phase of the study lasted for six weeks and those in the dietitian group benefited from weekly, face-to-face behavioural advice. The physician group received one face-to-face meeting with brief information on cholesterol, plant sterols and information on which foods to avoid or increase.  An additional follow up period of six weeks was included in the study in order to observe any difference between the groups under real-life conditions.  Blood cholesterol levels were measured at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks and 3-day diet diaries were kept at weeks 1, 6 and 12.

Plant sterols were provided to all the study participants for the 6 week intervention period only. They were able to choose from a combination of spreads, milk and yoghurt.

A significant difference in dietary habits, physical activity and increased plant sterols consumption was observed in the group that received structured advice from a dietitian. It is of interest that although at week 6 both groups showed a comparable decrease in LDL-cholesterol levels from baseline it was the dietitian intervention arm only which demonstrated a further significant improvement in LDL-cholesterol (P=0.006) at 12 weeks when compared with the 6 week measure.  Similar results were seen for total cholesterol and triglycerides at week 12. Participants in the dietitian group consumed more plant sterols during the study and purchased more plant sterols for themselves in the follow up period. This indicates that the structured advice delivered by a dietitian was more effective for sustaining a healthy behavioural change and a cholesterol lowering effect.

The dietitian led behavioural intervention sessions included education about:   Healthy diet e.g. Mediterranean style diet

Understanding food labels

Diet and lifestyle plans

Goal setting

Advice on; dietary fat intake, reducing salt and alcohol, fruit and vegetable consumption, whole grain products and plant sterols/stanols

Advice about increasing physical activity

General information about cholesterol

To know more on the risk cholesterol poses on developing heart disease and ways to control cholesterol, do not forget to listen to our Voices For Lowering Cholesterol



  1. Catapano AL, Graham I, De Backer G et al. (2016) 2016 ESC/EAS Guidelines for the Management of Dyslipidaemias. Eur Heart J 37, 2999-3058.


For further information see: Sialvera T.E, Papadopoulou A, Efstathiou SP, et al. 2017 Structured advice provided by a dietitian increases adherence of consumers to diet and lifestyle changes and lowers blood low-density lipoprotein (LDL) – cholesterol: the Increasing Adherence of Consumers to Diet & Lifestyle Changes to Lower (LDL) Cholesterol (ACT) randomised controlled trial. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics.

IPSSA @ Food Matters Live 2017

IPSSA was invited to participate at two seminars during the Food Matters Live 2017 Expo that took place from 21 to 23 November in London Excel.

Professor Elke Trautwein made two presentations on:

  1. 22 November, Seminar Programme – Functional Nutrition “Cradle to Grave”, where Professor Trautwein presented on The role of plant sterols/stanols in life-long management of blood cholesterol – from science to claims and
  2. 23 November, Seminar – NCDs, dietary patterns and cardiovascular disease, where Professor Trautwein gave a presentation entitled Plant sterols/stanols for cholesterol lowering and prevention of cardiovascular disease

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Feel free to download the presentations at the links above and reach out to us via email or Twitter!

IPSSA Comments on EU Commission’s draft implementing regulation for establishing the Union List of novel foods

The EU Commission has drafted an implementing regulation for establishing the Union List of novel foods in accordance with Regulation (EU) 2015/2283 of the European Parliament and of the Council on novel foods.

To this initiative, EU Commission publicly asked for feedback in period 5 October 2017 – 2 November 2017. 1)

The International Plant Sterols and Stanols Association (IPSSA), the leading association in the sector of plant sterols and stanols comprised of the major international companies in the sector (Arboris, BASF, Cargill, Raisio, Unilever), submitted comments with the following major items2):


  • The draft implementing regulation does not include notifications while this is addressed in the Regulation (EU) 2015/2283 as well as in the recitals of the draft implementing regulation.
    IPSSA sees the need to also include notifications in the Union List to avoid mismatch in the implementing regulation as such as well as to Regulation (EU) 2015/2283.
    Further, it should be realized that notifications were seen as a clarification and acceptance of the legal novel food status of individual products in the EU, whereas uncertainty to the legal status of notified products might arise when there is no information to notified products at all in the new regulation.
  • The draft implementing regulation summarizes the individual provisions applicable to plant sterols, stanols and their esters.
    However, it did not take the chance to harmonize, simplify or clarify the totality of provisions applicable to plant sterols, stanols and their esters.
    To approved food categories there could have been alignment with other current EU legislations, i.e. the definition of food categories as defined for the use of Food Additives.
    IPSSA also addressed whether specifications of plant sterols, stanols and their esters could have been harmonized.
  • The draft implementing regulation contains several editorial mistakes compared to the initial approvals for plant sterols, stanols and their esters by past EU Commission decisions.
    IPSSA addressed the individual necessary corrections, i.e. to approved food categories or the defined sterols/stanols profile.


IPSSA welcomes the EU Commission’s activity on novel foods and the establishing of a Union List.

At the same time, IPSSA sees this as a chance for improvement in clear regulations while keeping the legal status of products on the market to the benefit of the consumers.




Expert working group makes recommendations for lifestyle changes and cardiovascular disease prevention

  • Experts agree that lifestyle changes including a healthy diet are important for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention.
  • A healthy diet is recommended for everyone and should be adapted to local culture and environment.
  • Amongst functional foods and food supplements, plant sterols/stanols at doses of 2-3 g/day are recommended as they have a proven cholesterol-lowering effect. Clinical studies support their LDL-cholesterol-lowering effect, but there is yet no evidence on CVD event reduction.

The expert working group reviewed existing guidelines, clinical practice and research evidence to provide recommendations on ten proposed lifestyle changes and their impact on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk prevention.

They agreed that:

  1. A Mediterranean diet high in fruits, vegetables, seeds, nuts, fish, whole cereals and extra-virgin olive oil is beneficial to all for CVD prevention. Tailoring diets to the needs of specific communities and patients is also important.
  2. Moderate alcohol consumption of mostly wine or beer is probably beneficial to heart health but may increase the risk of several cancers.
  3. Encourage people to eat a healthy food-based diet based on whole foods with the mantra ‘Unwrap less, peel more”.
  4. There is not enough evidence that a low-fat diet is beneficial for CVD prevention, but there is strong evidence for promoting a Mediterranean diet.
  5. Functional foods: Phytosterols at 1.6-3 g per day reduce LDL-C by 10% in those not on medications or on a stable statin dose. In diets designed to reduce LDL-C, phytosterol-enriched foods may be recommended. There is no evidence to support the use of omega-3 supplementation. Diets should be high in natural sources of dietary fibre.
  6. Exercise, e.g. at least 30 minutes five days a week should be recommended but CV fitness should be assessed and high-risk patients and those engaging in high-intensity sport should be screened before starting exercise.
  7. Smoking cessation is a major modifiable risk factor for CVD. Hence, clinicians need to ask the right questions and be available with the right advice to help patients stop smoking.
  8. Nutritionists form an important part of any CV risk multidisciplinary team. Food-related advice needs to form an important part of daily practice in primary care and especially cardiologists would benefit from basic knowledge about how to talk with patients about CVD risk and nutrition. Public and occupational education is also required.
  9. Tools such as questionnaires to assess lifestyle and plan lifestyle modifications and interventions are useful.
  10. Rehabilitation programmes and a multidisciplinary team approach are needed when encouraging lifestyle changes. Motivational interviewing and a psychological assessment are recommended. Positive messages instead of negative ones are vital.

Taken together, lifestyle modification plays a key role in the prevention of CVD and experts agree on the evidence-based changes that can save lives and ill health. This review provides guidance and useful advice for clinicians and healthcare professionals on the role of lifestyle changes in the prevention of CVD.


Masana L, Ros E, Sudano I , Angoulvant D and the lifestyle expert working group. 2017 Atherosclerosis Supplements 26 2-15.

IPSSA Call for Action on World Heart Day 2017: Measure Your Blood Cholesterol!

Brussels, 29 September 2017:

Today is World Heart Day; a landmark date established by the World Heart Federation. According to the World Heart Federation, cardiovascular disease (CVD) continues to be the leading cause of death and disability in the world today: over 17.5 million people die from cardiovascular disease (CVD) every year[1]. It is also an established fact that one key modifiable risk factor for developing CVD is high blood cholesterol.

The International Plant Sterols and Stanols Association (IPSSA), the leading association in the sector of plant sterols and stanols comprised of the major international companies (Arboris, BASF, Cargill, Raisio, Unilever), fully supports the messages of the World Heart Foundation for World Heart Day and we are calling for the public to get their blood cholesterol measured and act to reduce or maintain healthy LDL-cholesterol levels.

According to the 2016 ESC/EAS guidelines on the management of dyslipidemias[2](Table 10 p. 298), as a general guide, LDL-blood should be:

  • For adults in low to moderate risk of developing CVD: LDL-C <1.8 mmol/L (70 mg/dL)
  • For adults in high risk of developing CVD: LDL-C <2.6 mmol/L (100 mg/dL)
  • For adults in very high risk of developing CVD: LDL-C <1.8 mmol/L (70 mg/dL)

Where mmol/L are units called millimoles per litre of blood.

Elevated LDL-cholesterol has no physical symptoms that could alert someone and yet it is a significant heart disease risk factor. The public needs to act as early as possible and measure their cholesterol through a simple blood test. The good news is that through a healthy and active lifestyle and diet, LDL-cholesterol levels can be lowered significantly, Geert van Poppel, IPSSA Chairman comments. But people must act, measure, and become aware of their cholesterol levels sooner rather than later, he concludes.

Maintaining LDL-blood cholesterol at desirable levels and generally lowering the risk for developing CVD requires lifestyle modifications towards a healthier diet and a more active living. Including to a balanced, healthy diet foods with added plant sterols and stanols can make an important contribution:  it has been scientifically proven that a daily consumption of foods and food supplements with 1.5 – 3.0g of added plant sterols or stanols can lower blood LDL-cholesterol dose-dependently by 7-12.5% in 2-3 weeks as part of the daily diet.


[2] Table 10 page 298

Phytosterols-enriched low-fat milk lowered both total and LDL cholesterol in a Chinese population

  • A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial showed that phytosterol- enriched low-fat milk consumption led to a significant reduction in total and LDL-cholesterol
  • Daily intake of 1.5 g phytosterols for 3 weeks lowered LDL-cholesterol by 9.5%; diastolic blood pressure was also lowered with phytosterol intake
  • Milk consumption was generally well tolerated and only mild gastrointestinal side-effects occurred which did not reduce the cholesterol lowering effect of phytosterols
  • Low calcium intake and osteoporosis are common problems in Asian people and hence the milk with added phytosterols is therefore also useful for providing a daily source of calcium


Researchers in Hong Kong randomised 221 non-diabetic southern Chinese participants aged 24-79 years to receive either phytosterol-enriched low-fat milk (1.5 g of phytosterols daily) or a conventional low-fat-milk for a three-week period. The participants were not on any cholesterol lowering medication.

They found that in comparison with the standard low-fat milk those receiving the phytosterol-enriched milk had a significant reduction in serum LDL-cholesterol of 0.265 mmol/L or 9.5% (p<0.0001). Total cholesterol was also significantly lowered (p<0.0001, while HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were not affected. Interestingly, diastolic (but nor systolic) blood pressure was also lower with phytosterols p<0.01.

The Chinese population has a high prevalence of lactose intolerance when compared to Caucasians. However, despite 30% of study participants experiencing at least one adverse event, e.g. diarrhoea and flatulence this did not affect the LDL-cholesterol lowering effect of the phytosterol added milk in this study group.

This is further evidence showing that phytosterols can reduce blood cholesterol also in the Chinese population. This finding is significant as the traditional diet of the Chinese population is characterised by a high intake of plant-based food and more moderate consumption of animal products.

Low calcium intake and osteoporosis are common in Asian populations. This study further showed that low-fat milk with added phytosterols not only lowered cholesterol, but also provides an important daily source of calcium and protein.

Ching-Lung Cheung, Daniel Ka-Chun Ho, Chor-Wing Sing et al. 2017 Randomized controlled trial of the effect of phytosterols-enriched low-fat milk on lipid profile in Chinese.  Scientific Reports, Nature. Available @

Publication by Frost & Sullivan commissioned by FSE on Healthcare Cost Savings of Phytosterol Food Supplements in the European Union

In order to understand better the potential value of supplementation to society, Food Supplements Europe (FSE) has commissioned economic consultants of Frost & Sullivan to evaluate the potential healthcare cost savings that could be derived from supplement intake in the European Union. This newly published report, entitled “Healthcare Cost Savings of Phytosterol Food Supplements in the European Union. Economic Implication of Managing Cardiovascular Disease with Phytosterol Food Supplements with Demonstrated LDL-cholesterol Reduction Capabilities” addresses the health care cost savings of phytosterols (comprising plant sterols and stanols).

The report addresses in a form of a case study the possible direct economic benefits from the daily use of phytosterols added to food sources or as food supplements. As target group, individuals at the highest risk of developing CVD, i.e. people with severe hypercholesterolemia were chosen.

  • 1 million people over 55 years in the EU have severe hypercholesterolemia defined as a total cholesterol of >6.2 mmol/L. They have an expected 24.3% risk of experiencing a CVD-attributed hospital event.
  • Consumption of 1.7 g/day of phytosterols (in the form of a food supplement), is expected to reduce LDL-cholesterol by about 0.37 mmol/L among severe hyper-cholesterolemic adults aged 55 years and older.
  • Assuming an optimal daily phytosterol intake of 2 g (defined as 0.3 g coming from the habitual diet plus 1.7 g from taking a food supplement), this would translate into an absolute risk reduction of experiencing a CVD attributed hospital event of 2.3%.
  • In numbers, this relates to 170,542 possible CVD-attributed hospital events that could be avoided throughout the EU per year.
  • Estimated risk reduction benefits from using phytosterols vary between EU countries, based on the observed CVD-attributed event rates of each country.
  • Total health care cost savings of 26.5 billion Euro could be achieved in the EU over 5 years through regular use of 1.7 g/d of PS from supplements by the target population. This is equivalent to 5.3 billion Euro of avoidable costs per year.
  • The total net benefit (taking the cost for phytosterol supplements into account) for the entire EU target population (all adults 55 years and older with severe hypercholesterolemia) is 4.09 billion Euro per year.
  • The benefits per potential user (all adults 55 years and older with severe hypercholesterolemia) of avoiding CVD-attributed costs are expected to be ca. 170 Euro per user per year for the EU as a whole.

This new report describes that significant health care cost savings can be realised through a concerted effort to identify high CVD risk populations in Europe (i.e. adults 55 years and older with severe hypercholesterolemia) and to encourage them to use phytosterol food supplements as a means to help minimise their risk of CVD. Therefore, this latest health care cost savings assessment adds to the available evidence based on previous assessments of this kind making the case that phytosterol use is a cost-effective strategy.

FSE have also published an infographic summarizing the key messages of the report that you can view and download here